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TOOL TO CREATE BOOTABLE WINDOWS USB STICK FROM LINUX

The WinUSB fork we covered a while back was renamed to WoeUSB recently, while also seeing quite a few releases for the past few days.

 

WoeUSB

 

WoeUSB / WinUSB is a tool that can be used to create a bootable Windows installer USB stick from an ISO or DVD. The application supports Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, as well Windows 10, and can be used either with a GUI or from the command line.

As for supported bootmodes, WoeUSB / WinUSB can create a bootable Windows USB installation stick using the following:
  • Legacy / MBR-style / IBM PC compatible bootmode;
  • Native UEFI booting is supported for Windows 7 and later images (with a limitation: only FAT filesystem can be used as the target filesystem).

 

Since it was forked from Colin Gille’s WinUSB, the application has seen a major code refactoring, bug fixes as well as some minor new features. The changes include:
  • support for both wxWidgets 2 and 3;
  • use pkexec instead of gksudo for privilege escalation;
  • UEFI boot support;
  • numerous bug fixes.

Some newer WoeUSB changes include:

  • support customizing the –label of the newly created filesystem in –format mode;
  • implement checking on target filesystem in –install mode;
  • command line: check if target media is busy before continuing and bail out when the target partition is mounted;
  • support Linux distributions that uses “grub2” as prefix name, such as Fedora;
  • –install and –format installation options are deprecated in favor of –partition and –device, to be more clear what both options will do. The old options will still be available until WoeUSB v3.0;
  • from now on, GRUB will pause when the ENTER key is used before starting to load Windows. This is useful if you want to see if there are errors in the GRUB loading stage.

Also, since the application name has changed, the executables have changed as well: “woeusbgui” for the GUI and “woeusb” for the command line tool.

You can see what’s new in each new WoeUSB release (there were 13 new releases for the past 2 days) on GitHub.

Despite the major code refactoring and numerous bug fixes, I still encountered an error using the WoeUSB GUI, which I also found in the original WinUSB. When the Windows USB stick is completed, WoeUSB displayed the following message: “Installation failed ! Exit code: 256”. This bug was closed on GitHub and it looks like it doesn’t affect the actual Windows USB stick in any way.

In my test, I was able to install Windows 10 64bit in VirtualBox (on an Ubuntu 17.04 host) despite this error.

Install WoeUSB in Ubuntu or Linux Mint via PPA

WoeUSB is available in the main WebUpd8 PPA, for Ubuntu 17.04, 16.10, 16.04 or 14.04 / Linux Mint 18.x or 17.x. To add the PPA and install WoeUSB, use the following commands:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nilarimogard/webupd8
sudo apt update
sudo apt install woeusb

If you don’t want to add the PPA, you can grab the latest WoeUSB deb from HERE (you’ll only need the “woeusb” deb; the “winusb” deb is there as a transitional dummy package, so those that had the old fork installed will receive the new WoeUSB package as an update).

For how to build WoeUSB from source, report bugs, etc., see its GitHub page.

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Create A Bootable Windows Usb Drive From Linux, Create Bootable Windows Usb Stick In Linux, Make Bootable Windows Usb Stick In Linux, Make Bootable Windows Usb Stick From Linux, Bootable Usb Stick Linux Ubuntu

Flash Drive USB

Restore Corrupted USB Drive to Original state

Restore Corrupted USB Drive to Original state

 

 

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Computer and Encryption

Cryptr – A Simple CLI Utility To Encrypt And Decrypt Files

cryptr - encrypt and decrypt files

Looking for a quick, easy, and secure method to protect your files? Well, there is a simple shell utility called “Cryptr” that helps you to encrypt and decrypt files. All from command line, and you don’t need to be a security ninja or Linux expert to learn how to secure your data. Cryptr uses OpenSSL AES-256 cipher block chaining method to encrypt files. It is free to use and is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0.

Encrypt And Decrypt Files Using Cryptr

Installation is not a big deal. Git clone Cryptr repository using command:

git clone https://github.com/nodesocket/cryptr.git

This command will clone the contents of Cryptr repository in a folder called cryptr in your current working directory.

Then link the cryptr.bash file to your bin folder using command:

sudo ln -s "$PWD"/cryptr/cryptr.bash /usr/local/bin/cryptr

That’s it. It’s time to see some usage examples.

Let us encrypt a file called “test.txt”. To do so, run the following command from your Terminal. Cryptr will ask you to enter the password to the file twice.

$ cryptr encrypt test.txt 
enter aes-256-cbc encryption password:
Verifying - enter aes-256-cbc encryption password:

The above command will encrypt the given file (I.e test.txt) using AES-256-CBC encryption method and save it with an extension .aes. You can use “ls” command to verify if the file is really encrypted or not.

If there is .aes at the end in the file name, it menas the file is encrypted.

To decrypt an encrypted file, use the following command. Enter the correct password and voila!

$ cryptr decrypt test.txt.aes 
enter aes-256-cbc decryption password:

You can also define the password to use when encrypting a file using the CRYPTR_PASSWORD environment variable like below.

$ CRYPTR_PASSWORD=BC1rO7K7SspYcLChMr28M cryptr encrypt test.txt 
Using environment variable CRYPTR_PASSWORD for the password

Here, BC1rO7K7SspYcLChMr28M is the password to the file.

Similarly, to decrypt an encrypted file, use:

$ CRYPTR_PASSWORD=BC1rO7K7SspYcLChMr28M cryptr decrypt test.txt.aes
Using environment variable CRYPTR_PASSWORD for the password

This can be helpful in scripts and batch operations.

To view the help, run:

$ cryptr help
Usage: cryptr command <command-specific-options>

encrypt <file> Encrypt file
 decrypt <file.aes> Decrypt encrypted file
 help Displays help
 version Displays the current version

If you’re looking for a simple utility that just works out of the box without much hassle, give Cryptr a try. I will be soon here with another interesting guide. Until then stay tuned with OSTechNix.

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Ubuntu Software Update Picture

Things to do After Installing Ubuntu 17.10

Brief: Here are the essential things to do after installing Ubuntu 17.10 in order to give you a better and smooth experience after the fresh install of Ubuntu 17.10.

Ubuntu 17.10 is released. By now, you might have seen the new features in Ubuntu 17.10 and I recommend you should also start looking at Ubuntu 18.04 release date. If you are giving 17.10 a try with a fresh install, here I am listing a few things to do after installing Ubuntu 17.10 that will make your experience with Ubuntu better. If you are a new Ubuntu user, I also recommend reading this getting started guide with Ubuntu that will help you to understand Ubuntu and use it easily.

Things to do after installing Ubuntu 17.10

 

Things to do after installing Ubuntu 17.10

 

Just to be clear, what to do after installing Ubuntu 17.10 depends upon you, the user. If you are into graphics design, you’ll like to install plenty of Linux graphics tools. If you are into Linux gaming, you might look for installing more Linux games and configuring your graphics card for that. If you are into programming, you would want to install programming tools, editors, IDEs etc.

This list here is mostly generic to put down things that should be useful for almost everyone, if not all. These steps mentioned here are surely helpful to most new Ubuntu users.
 
I have created a video so that it will be easier for you to see these steps in action. Do subscribe to our YouTube channel for more Ubuntu and Linux videos.
 
 

So, let’s begin with the written list of things to do after installing Ubuntu 17.10:

1. Update your system

Whenever you do a fresh install of Ubuntu, update the system. It may sound strange because you just installed a fresh OS but still, you must run the updater. I have experienced that if you don’t update the system right after installing Ubuntu, you might face issues while trying to install a new program. You may even see fewer applications to install. To update your system, press Super Key (Windows Key) to launch the Activity Overview and look for Software Updater. Run this program. It will look for available updates. Install them.

 

Software Updater in Ubuntu 17.10

Alternatively, you can use the following command in the terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T):

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

2. Enable Canonical Partner repositories

Another must do thing is to enable Canonical Partner repositories. Ubuntu has a number of software available from its repositories. You can find them in the Software Center. But you get even more software in the Software Center if you enable the Canonical Partner repositories. This additional repository consists of third-party software, often proprietary stuff, that have been tested by Ubuntu. Go to Activity Overview by pressing Super Key (Windows key), and look for Software & Updates: Software and Updates in Ubuntu 17.10

 
Open it and under the Other Software tab, check the option of Canonical Partners.
 

Enable Canonical Partners repository in Ubuntu 17.10

 
It will ask for your password and update the software sources. Once it completes, you’ll find more applications to install in the Software Center.

3. Install media codecs

By default, Ubuntu doesn’t provide a number of media codecs because of copyright issues. But it does provide an easy way to install these media codecs so that you could play MP3, MPEG4, AVI and a number of other media files. You can install these media codecs thanks to Ubuntu Restricted Extra package. Click on the link below to install it from the Software Center. Install Ubuntu Restricted Extras

 
Or alternatively, use the command below to install it:
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras

4. Install software from the Software Center

Once you have upgraded the system and installed the codecs, it’s time to install some software. If you are rather new to Ubuntu, I suggest reading this detailed beginner’s guide to installing software in Ubuntu. Basically, there are various ways to install software in Ubuntu. The easiest, most convenient and most reliable way is to use the Software Center to find and install new software. You can open the Software Center to look for software to install in this graphical tool.

 
Software Center in Ubuntu 17.10
 
Alternatively, if you know what you are going to install just type the sudo apt install <program_name> command to install it. Read the beginners guide to using apt commands in Ubuntu for more details on this command.
It is up to you but I can surely suggest a few applications that are on my list of things to do after installing Ubuntu 17.10.
  • VLC media player for videos
  • GIMP – Photoshop alternative for Linux
  • Shutter – Screenshot application
  • Calibre – eBook management tool
  • Chromium – Open Source web browser
  • Kazam – Screen Recorder Tool
  • Gdebi – Lightweight package installer for .deb packages.

You can also refer to this list of must-have Linux applications for more software recommendations.

5. Install software from the web

You’ll find plenty of applications in the Software Center. But you’ll also find that many applications are not included in the Software Center despite the fact that they support Linux. Actually, a number of software vendors package their software in .deb format that can be easily installed in Ubuntu. You can download the .deb files from their official websites and install them by double-clicking on it. Some of the main software that I download and install from the web are:

  • Chrome web browser
  • Slack communication tool
  • Dropbox cloud storage service
  • Skype (the new beta version)
  • Viber instant messenger

6. Tweak the look and feel of Ubuntu 17.10

Ubuntu 17.10 uses GNOME desktop environment. While the default setup looks good, it doesn’t mean you cannot change it.

You can do some visual changes from the System Settings. Just search for System Settings in the Activity Overview and start it.

In the System Settings, you can change the wallpaper of the desktop and the lock screen, you can change the position of the dock (launcher on the left side), change power settings, Bluetooth etc. In short, you can find many settings that you can change as per your need. Remember that there is no “set to default” button here so try to keep a track of changes you make to your system.

 
Ubuntu 17.10 System Settings
 
Let’s go further with tweaking the Ubuntu 17.10 system. You can install new icons and themes. But to change the themes and icons, you need to use GNOME Tweaks tool. As some readers suggested, it is installed by default now. But if you cannoy find it, you can install it via the Software Center or you can use the command below to install it:

sudo apt install gnome-tweak-tool
 
Once installed, you can install new themes and icons.
 

Change theme is one of the must to do things after installing Ubuntu 17.10

7. Prolong your battery and prevent overheating

One of the best ways to prevent overheating in Linux laptops is to use TLP. Just install TLP and forget it. It works wonder in controlling CPU temperature and thus prolonging your laptops’ battery life in long run. You can install it using the command below in a terminal:

sudo apt install tlp tlp-rdw

Once installed, run the command below to start it:

sudo tlp start

No need for any configuration changes (you can do that if you know what you are doing). It will be automatically started with each boot and tweak your system’s power consumption.

8. Save your eyes with Nightlight

Another one of favorite things. Keeping your eyes safe at night from the computer screen is very important. Reducing blue light helps to reduce eye strain.
 

flux effect

 
GNOME provides a built-in Night Light option and you can activate it in the System Settings. Just go to System Settings-> Devices-> Displays and turn on the Night Light option.
 
Enabling night light is a must to do in Ubuntu 17.10

9. Moving back to Xorg from Wayland (if needed)

I have separately discussed moving back to Xorg from Wayland in Ubuntu 17.10. As Ubuntu 17.10 moves away from the legacy Xorg display server, not all desktop applications are compatible with the new Wayland display server.

I faced issues with screen recording tool and apps that depend on geolocation such as RedShift. And for this reason, I switched to Xorg from Wayland. It won’t change anything from the end user’s point of view, so you can be sure that switching to Xorg won’t harm your system.

To switch to Xorg from Wayland, log out of your system, at the login screen, click the gear icon and select Ubuntu on Xorg option:

 
Switch to xorg display server from Wayland
 
You can switch to Wayland in the same way,

What do you do after installing Ubuntu?

That was my suggestions for getting started with Ubuntu. Now it’s your turn. What steps do you recommend as things to do after installing Ubuntu 17.10? The comment section is all yours. Read More

Picture of Honey Jars

Increase your network security – Deploy a honeypot

Deploying a honeypot system on your internal network is a proactive measure that enables you to immediately detect an intruder before any data is damaged or stolen.

  Picture of Honey Jars   Have you ever wondered how a hacker breaks into a live system? Would you like to keep any potential attacker occupied so you can gather information about him without the use of a production system? Would you like to immediately detect when an attacker attempts to log into your system or retrieve data? One way to see and do those things is to deploy a honeypot. It’s a system on your network that acts as a decoy and lures potential hackers like bears get lured to honey. Honeypots do not contain any live data or information, but they can contain false information. Also, a honeypot should prevent the intruder from accessing protected areas of your network. A properly configured honeypot should have many of the same features of your production system. This would include graphical interfaces, login warning messages, data fields, etc. An intruder shouldn’t be able to detect that he is on a honeypot system and that his actions are being monitored.

Benefits of a honeypot system

Many organization wonder why they should spend money and time setting up a system that will attract hackers. With all the many benefits of a honeypot, however, the real question should be why you have not already set one up. A honeypot’s most significant value is based on the information that it obtains and can immediately alert on. Data that enters and leaves a honeypot allows security staff to gather information that is not available from an intrusion detection system (IDS). An attacker’s keystrokes can be logged during a session, even if encryption was used to establish it. Also, any attempts to access the system can trigger immediate alerts. An IDS requires published signatures to detect an attack, but it will often fail to detect a compromise that is not known at the time. Honeypots, on the other hand, can detect vulnerabilities based off the attacker’s behavior that the security community may not be aware of. These are often called zero-day exploits. The data collected by honeypots can be leveraged to enhance other security technologies. You can correlate logs generated from a honeypot with other system logs, IDS alerts and firewall logs. This can produce a comprehensive picture of suspicious activity within an organization and enable more relevant alerts to be configured that can produce fewer false positives. Another benefit of a honeypot is that once attackers enter the system, it can frustrate them and cause them to stop attacking the organization’s network. The more time spent in the honeypot means less time spent on your production system.

Design and operation of a honeypot

There are variety of operating systems and services a honeypot can use. A high-interaction honeypot can provide a complete production-type system that the attacker can interact with. On the other end is a low-interaction honeypot that simulates specific functions of a production system. These are more limited, but they’re useful for obtaining information at a higher level. In my experience, the high-interaction honeypot is the most beneficial because it can completely simulate the production environment. However, it requires the most time to deploy and configure. It is critical to have proper alerting configured for your honeypot. You should have logs for all devices in the honeypot sent to a centralized logging server, and security staff should be paged whenever an attacker enters the environment. This will enable staff to track the attacker and closely monitor the production environment to make sure it is secure. It is important your honeypot system is attractive to a potential attacker. It should not be as secure as your production system. It should have ports that respond to port scans, have user accounts and various system files. Passwords to fake accounts should be weak, and certain vulnerable ports should be left open. This will encourage the attacker to go into the honeypot environment versus the live production environment. Attackers typically attack the less secure environment before going to one that has stronger defenses. This allows security staff to learn how hackers bypass the standard controls, and afterwards they can make any required adjustments. You can deploy a physical or virtual honeypot. In most cases, it is best to deploy a virtual honeypot because it is more scalable and easier to maintain. You can have thousands of honeypots on just one physical machine, plus virtual honeypots are usually less expensive to deploy and more easily accessible.

Honeypot on internal network protects against insider threats

Honeypots can also protect an organization from insider threats. According to the 2016 Cyber Security Intelligence Survey, IBM found that 60% of all attacks were carried by insiders. A honeypot should be deployed within your internal network and only a minimal number of employees should know the system exists. Internal deployment is preferred over external due to the larger number of attacks carried by insiders and the fact that many hackers prefer to establish command-and-control servers for communication to compromised servers on the internal network. Honeyd is an open-source tool used for creating honeypots. It is a daemon that can be used to create many virtual hosts. You can configure each host differently and run a variety of services on them. They can be configured to run on different operating systems. You can set up real HTTP servers, FTP servers and run Linux applications on it. It is also enables you to simulate various network topologies. Honeypots have been used mostly by researchers to study the tactics and techniques of attackers. But as I explained earlier, they can be very useful to defenders as well. It is time for more organizations to consider using them as a proactive way to protect their network. The benefits of deploying them far outweigh the costs for organizations that manage a significant amount of sensitive data. Read More

Ubuntu 17.10 Desktop Picture

10 Major Updates In Ubuntu 17.10 Artful Aardvark

20/10/2017

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10 Major Updates In Ubuntu 17.10 Artful Aardvark
So there you have it finally, Ubuntu 17.10. The release which we have been talking about because of its switch to Gnome from Unity. We’ve talked about most its features in a previous article here but let’s again look at the final version of Ubuntu 17.10. At the end of this article, do take a poll and tell us if you’re going to upgrade to Ubuntu 17.10 or not.

What’s New In Ubuntu 17.10 “Artful Aardvark”?

1. GNOME is the default Desktop

​As all of us know that the Canonical had planned to switch to GNOME in its 18.04 version but it could not wait that long. So Canonical has switched to GNOME in 17.10 which is nice. Why wait for something which most Ubuntu users want?
ubuntu switch to gnome

2. Wayland is the default display server

wayland is the default display server

3. Linux Kernel 4.13

Linux Kernel 4.13

4. Dock

Ubuntu 17.10 has dock using dash to Dock GNOME shell extension. It makes the environment to look like unity.
Install Wine to run Windows Apps

Install Wine And Run Windows Apps in Linux

All kinds of software are currently available on Linux but every now and then, there is that Windows software or Game which is not available or has no equivalent on Linux  Wine makes it possible to run those Windows programs and Games on your Linux desktop. So let’s look at how to install Wine on Linux and run Windows apps on Linux desktop.

How to install Wine in Linux?

Installing a package on a fresh system is remarkably straightforward. Just download the package available for your distro and install it using your systems installation utility. Wine works on a huge amount of different Linux distributions and installing Wine should be no more difficult than installing any other software. Chances are that there is a Wine package in your software app for easy installation.
install wine from software center

Or you can follow the steps below to install from the PPA.

Install Wine on Fedora or Derivatives

Fedora 24
dnf config-manager –add-repo https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/fedora/24/winehq.repo
Fedora 25
dnf config-manager –add-repo https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/fedora/25/winehq.repo
Fedora 26
dnf config-manager –add-repo https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/fedora/26/winehq.repo
Install one of the following packages:
Stable branch
dnf install winehq-stable

Development branch
dnf install winehq-devel

Staging branch
dnf install winehq-staging

Install Wine on Ubuntu or Derivatives

If your system is 64 bit, enable 32-bit architecture (if you haven’t already):
sudo dpkg –add-architecture i386
Add the repository:
wget -nc https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/Release.key
sudo apt-key add Release.key
sudo apt-add-repository https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/
On Linux Mint 17.x, change the last line to the following:
sudo apt-add-repository ‘deb https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/ trusty main’
On Linux Mint 18.x, change the last line to the following:
sudo apt-add-repository ‘deb https://dl.winehq.org/wine-builds/ubuntu/ xenial main’
sudo apt-get update
Then install one of the following packages:
Stable branch
sudo apt-get install –install-recommends winehq-stable

Development branch
sudo apt-get install –install-recommends winehq-devel

Staging branch
sudo apt-get install –install-recommends winehq-staging

If there are missing dependencies reported by apt-get, install them and do the update and install again.
Timeshift Restore picture

Timeshift System Restore Utility

TimeShift is a system restore tool for Linux. It provides functionality that is quite similar to the System Restore feature in Windows or the Time Machine tool in MacOS. TimeShift protects your system by making incremental snapshots of the file system manually or at regular automated intervals.
These snapshots can then be restored at a later point to undo all changes to the system and restore it to the previous state. Snapshots are made using rsync and hard-links and the tool shares common files amongst snapshots in order to save disk space. Now that we have an idea about what Timeshift is, let us take take a detail look at setting up and using this tool. ​​

How to install Timeshift in Linux?

For Ubuntu and Ubuntu based distros such as Mint

Packages are available in my Launchpad PPA for supported Ubuntu releases. Run the following commands in a terminal window:
sudo apt-add-repository ppa:teejee2008/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install timeshift
add timeshift repository

update local repositories in linux mint

install timeshift in linux mint

Synfig Screenshot

Best Free and Open Source Alternatives to Adobe Products for Linux

Adobe provides a number of applications under Adobe Creative Suite, now under Adobe Creative Cloud. It’s not just limited to Photoshop but contains various other software that helps primarily in Web design, logo making, video editing, pdf editing and more.

However, Adobe Creative Suite is a proprietary software costing you a good amount of your money and if you are a Linux user, even if you are willing to spend that money, it’s not available for your OS.

In this article, we are going to cover some of the best Adobe products alternative for Linux.

Best Adobe alternatives for Linux

If you are not in a mood of reading the article, you can watch this video from our YouTube channel. Do subscribe to our YouTube channel for more Linux related videos.

I have included one non-FOSS item in this list. This is because I really couldn’t find a decent alternative to Adobe Acrobat in Linux.

For the rest, here we go!

1. GIMP: Alternative to Adobe Photoshop

GIMP Interface

Adobe Photoshop is the most popular and widely used graphics editing tool both for regular and professional users. It’s an excellent tool for photo editing, website design, and graphics creation.

When it comes to an alternative to Adobe Photoshop, GIMP provides the best replacement.

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linux-file-structure

Linux File System Structure Explained

When I was first coming from Windows and exploring Linux, I found the Linux filesystem structure to be a bit confusing, simply because I didn’t know anything other than the Windows file system for my entire life. But after persisting through the learning curve, the mystery was unraveled and I can now comfortably switch between Linux and Windows whenever needed, and I actually feel like I understand the Windows file system better now after learning the Linux file system.

For me, the biggest difference between the two file systems is to understand where the root of the file system begins. In Windows, the root begins at the drive letter, usually C:\, which basically means it begins at the hard drive. In Linux however, the root of the filesystem doesn’t correspond with a physical device or location, it’s a logical location of simply “/”. See the graphics below for a visual representation.

​Linux File System Structure Tree

linux file structure

Image Courtesy – tldp.org

​Windows File System Tree

Windows file structure

​Another thing to remember is that in Linux, everything is a file. Or, more accurately, everything is represented as being a file, while in Windows it may be displayed as being a disk drive.

For example, in Windows the hard drive is typically represented as C:\ in the file explorer, and it will even display a little icon of the hard drive and display how much space is being used. In Linux, on the other hand, the hard drive as represented merely as /dev/sda, which is really just a folder/directory, which in Linux is really just a file that points to other files.

So let’s take some other more practical examples. The Linux equivalent of your Documents folder in Windows would be /home/username/Documents, whereas in Windows it’s typically C:\Users\UserName\Documents. These are actually pretty similar, but you can see where the differences lie.

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Linux File System Types, Linux File System Structure, Linux File System Explained, Linux File System Permissions, Linux File System Layout, Linux File System Encryption, Linux File System User Space

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